VipinKumar R. pawar



I'm VipinKumar Rajendra Pawar

Proficient at executing good safety and health improvement practices for optimum utilization of resources and providing them with a safe working environment. Excellent interpersonal and negotiation skills with strong problem solving and organizational abilities.

PhD Scholar

University of Mumbai

Masters in Engineering:VLSI and Embedded Systems

University of Pune

Bachelor of Engineering: Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

Mumbai University

Interior and Lighning Design

IIRSG (2018-till Date)

Augmentedd Reality

IIRSG (2018-till date)

GIS Application Developer

IIRSG, Netherlands (2014-2018)

Embedded System Developer

AMS India (2011-2014)

My Skills
Architectural Interior and Lighning Design
Electronics Analog / Digital Product Design
Professional Website Development
PCB Designing
Engineering Design


Research Awards Won


Research Paper Published


Projects Done


Books Published

Freelancing Technology prototyping / Development Services

Electronics Product Design

Digital / Analog / Home and Industrial Appliances prototype designing

PCB design

Single Layer , Multilayer PCB Designing and prototyping

Interior designing

Interior / Exterior Ligninig design with proper lighning product report

Website Development

Personal Blog / commercial /e-commerce website with affordable rates with annual maintenance contract

Android / iOS app development

All types of Personal / bussiness mobile application development with affordable rates

Finance and project Management and planning

All project reporting, budget management and finance plnning with affordable contract rates


2021-08-02T00:04:41Z: M1.5 61 km NE from Baie-Comeau, QC, 2021-07-30T16:41:12Z: M2.0 70 km NW from Maniwaki,..

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Natural Resources Canada - Earthquakes Canada
2021-08-02T00:04:41Z: M1.5 61 km NE from Baie-Comeau, QC
− Earthquakes Canada • 9 hours ago
2021-07-30T16:41:12Z: M2.0 70 km NW from Maniwaki, QC • 9 hours ago
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Quake Watch
Last Updated on August 3, 2021 by PuterMan An earthquake Magnitude 6.1 has occurred in Irian Jaya Region. Indonesia [New Guinea]. QVSData ref EMSC1016...
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Day in Review


The Moon is covered with craters and rocks, creating a surface “roughness” that casts shadows, as seen in this photograph from the 1972 Apollo 17 mission.
NASA Study Highlights Importance of Surface Shadows in Moon Water Puzzle

The shadows cast by the roughness of the Moon’s surface create small cold spots for water ice to accumulate even during the harsh lunar daytime.

Scientists are confident that water ice can be found at the Moon’s poles inside permanently shadowed craters – in other words, craters that never receive sunlight. But observations show water ice is also present across much of the lunar surface, even during daytime. This is a puzzle: Previous computer models suggested any water ice that forms during the lunar night should quickly burn off as the Sun climbs overhead.

“Over a decade ago, spacecraft detected the possible presence of water on the dayside surface of the Moon, and this was confirmed by NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy [SOFIA] in 2020,” said Björn Davidsson, a scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “These observations were, at first, counterintuitive: Water shouldn’t survive in that harsh environment. This challenges our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about how volatiles, like water ice, can survive on airless bodies.”

In a new study, Davidsson and co-author Sona Hosseini, a research and instrument scientist at JPL, suggest that shadows created by the “roughness” of the lunar surface provide refuge for water ice, enabling it to form as surface frost far from the Moon’s poles. They also explain how the Moon’s exosphere (the tenuous gases that act like a thin atmosphere) may have a significant role to play in this puzzle.

Water Traps and Frost Pockets

Many computer models simplify the lunar surface, rendering it flat and featureless. As a result, it’s often assumed that the surface far from the poles heats up uniformly during lunar daytime, which would make it impossible for water ice to remain on the sunlit surface for long.

So how is it that water is being detected on the Moon beyond permanently shadowed regions? One explanation for the detection is that water molecules may be trapped inside rock or the impact glass created by the incredible heat and pressure of meteorite strikes. Fused within these materials, as this hypothesis suggests, the water can remain on the surface even when heated by the Sun while creating the signal that was detected by SOFIA.

But one problem with this idea is that observations of the lunar surface show that the amount of water decreases before noon (when sunlight is at its peak) and increases in the afternoon. This indicates that the water may be moving from one location to another through the lunar day, which would be impossible if they are trapped inside lunar rock or impact glass.

Davidsson and Hosseini revised the computer model to factor in the surface roughness apparent in images from the Apollo missions from 1969 to 1972, which show a lunar surface strewn with boulders and pockmarked with craters, creating lots of shady areas even near noon. By factoring this surface roughness into their computer models, Davidsson and Hosseini explain how it’s possible for frost to form in the small shadows and why the distribution of water changes throughout the day.

Because there is no thick atmosphere to distribute heat around the surface, extremely cold, shaded areas, where temperatures may plummet to about minus 350 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 210 degrees Celsius), can neighbor hot areas exposed to the Sun, where temperatures may reach as high as 240 Fahrenheit (120 Celsius).

As the Sun tracks through the lunar day, the surface frost that may accumulate in these cold, shaded areas is slowly exposed to sunlight and cycled into the Moon’s exosphere. The water molecules then refreeze onto the surface, reaccumulating as frost in other cold, shaded locations.

“Frost is far more mobile than trapped water,” said Davidsson. “Therefore, this model provides a new mechanism that explains how water moves between the lunar surface and the thin lunar atmosphere.”

A Closer Look

While this isn’t the first study to consider surface roughness when calculating lunar surface temperatures, previous work did not take into account how shadows would affect the capability of water molecules to remain on the surface during daytime as frost. This new study is important because it helps us to better understand how lunar water is released into, and removed from, the Moon’s exosphere.

“Understanding water as a resource is essential for NASA and commercial endeavors for future human lunar exploration,” Hosseini said. “If water is available in the form of frost in sunlit regions of the Moon, future explorers may use it as a resource for fuel and drinking water. But first, we need to figure out how the exosphere and surface interact and what role that plays in the cycle.”

To test this theory, Hosseini is leading a team to develop ultra-miniature sensors to measure the faint signals from water ice. The Heterodyne OH Lunar Miniaturized Spectrometer (HOLMS) is being developed to be used on small stationary landers or autonomous rovers – like JPL’s Autonomous Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robot (A-PUFFER), for example – that may be sent to the Moon in the future to make direct measurements of hydroxyl (a molecule that contains one hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom).

Hydroxyl, which is a molecular cousin of water (a molecule with two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom), can serve as an indicator of how much water may be present in the exosphere. Both water and hydroxyl could be created by meteorite impacts and through solar wind particles hitting the lunar surface, so measuring the presence of these molecules in the Moon’s exosphere can reveal how much water is being created while also showing how it moves from place to place. But time is of the essence to make those measurements.

“The current lunar exploration by several nations and private companies indicates significant artificial changes to the lunar environment in the near future,” said Hosseini. “If this trend continues, we will lose the opportunity to understand the natural lunar environment, particularly the water that is cycling through the Moon’s pristine exosphere. Consequently, the advanced development of ultra-compact, high-sensitivity instruments is of critical importance and urgency.”

The researchers point out that this new study could help us better understand the role shadows play in the accumulation of water ice and gas molecules beyond the Moon, such as on Mars or even on the particles in Saturn rings.

The study, titled “Implications of surface roughness in models of water desorption on the Moon”, was published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society on August 2, 2021.


Day in Review


NASA’s ECOSTRESS instrument captured ground-surface temperature data over southern Oregon’s Bootleg Fire from July 7 to July 22. Areas in red – the hottest pixels detected – show the fire front, where resources are needed most.
ECOSTRESS Data Incorporated Into New Wildfire Response Tool

The instrument on the International Space Station is uniquely positioned to provide wildfire responders with a high-resolution look at fire progression.

NASA’s ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is aiding in the fight against fires in the Western U.S.

As of July 28, 2021, the size of the Bootleg Fire in southern Oregon was more than 410,000 acres, making it the largest wildfire currently burning in the U.S. So far, some 400 buildings and more than 340 vehicles have been destroyed. Wildfire responders have managed to contain about 53% of the fire, and new data from ECOSTRESS is helping.

ECOSTRESS measures surface temperature from the vantage point of the International Space Station, and its ability to observe fires of the Northwest US often twice per day at a high spatial resolution (around 70 meters) makes it ideal for tracking fires. Researchers on the RADR-Fire team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been experimenting with ECOSTRESS data as part of a new tool now being implemented for first responders like the U.S. Forest Service.

In the above visualization, ECOSTRESS is tracking the movement of the Bootleg Fire and identifying its proximity to critical infrastructure -- areas in red represent the hottest pixels ECOSTRESS detected. The extreme heat in those areas indicates the fire front, or where resources are most needed.

The capabilities of ECOSTRESS are unique. Satellites that acquire data more frequently don’t have high-enough resolution to track the fine line of the fire front, and satellites with higher resolution than ECOSTRESS cross over the same area much less frequently (every 5 to 16 days).

Dixie Fire

ECOSTRESS also captured data over Northern California’s Dixie Fire, which has doubled in size to more than 220,000 acres over the last few days. In the Dixie Fire data visualization above, the red areas show the hottest pixels – and fire movement – from July 15 to July 24. The most heavily affected areas are south of Lake Almanor in Plumas County. As of July 27, the Dixie Fire was 23% contained.

More than 7,000 personnel are involved in the wildfire response to the two fires. Although they have many tools in their arsenal, the use of spaceborne data like that provided by ECOSTRESS is still relatively new – and also serves as a good example of the versatility and real-world impact satellite data can provide.

More information about ECOSTRESS can be found at:


Russia's Nauka module tilts space station with unplanned thruster fire

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July 30, 2021
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The Launchpad
Russia's Nauka module briefly tilts space station with unplanned thruster fire
(Thomas Pesquet/ESA/NASA)
Nauka's bumpy ride to the International Space Station didn't get any smoother after the new Russian science module docked on Thursday (July 29). A little over three hours after docking was complete, cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky and Pyotr Dubrov were preparing to open the hatch when thrusters on Nauka fired "inadvertently and unexpectedly," according to NASA spokesperson Rob Navias. As a result, the space station temporarily lost what engineers call "attitude control," which is quite rare, Navias noted. The crew is not in any danger.
Full Story: Space (7/29) 
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Boeing's Starliner spacecraft will have to wait to make its triumphant trip to space. On Thursday (July 29), officials at NASA and Boeing announced that Boeing's uncrewed Orbital Flight Test 2 (OFT-2) mission for its Starliner astronaut taxi will be delayed from Friday (July 30) to Tuesday (Aug. 3). This delay follows a mishap with Russia's Nauka module.
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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Ariane 5 rocket launching 2 communications satellites today: Watch it live
(Patrick Aventurier/Getty Images)
Europe's powerful Ariane 5 rocket will fly for the first time in nearly a year today (July 30), and you can watch the liftoff live. An Ariane 5 topped with two communications satellites is scheduled to launch from Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, this evening during a 90-minute window that opens at 5 p.m. EDT (2100 GMT). You can watch the action live here at, courtesy of Ariane 5 operator Arianespace, or directly via the French company.
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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In a brand-new video, you can watch Ingenuity make its highest and most complex flight to date, which took the autonomous craft over an area known as Raised Ridges. During this trip, its 10th flight, Ingenuity covered a distance of 310 feet (95 meters) and soared to a record altitude of 40 feet (12 meters).
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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Science & Astronomy
Mars' buried polar 'lakes' may just be frozen clay
(ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/Bill Dunford)
Bright reflections that radar detected beneath the south pole of Mars may not be underground lakes as previously thought but deposits of clay instead, a new study finds.
Full Story: Space (7/29) 
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New data from the star-mapping Gaia satellite are helping scientists unlock the mystery of our Milky Way galaxy's spiral arms. Recently published studies exploring the Early Data Release 3 (EDR3), a batch of observations made available to the scientific community last December, reveal the spiral structure of our galaxy with a greater precision and detail than was possible before.
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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Elon Musk shows off wild plumbing for 29-engine Super Heavy booster
SpaceX's Super Heavy booster is a complicated beast. On Thursday (July 29), SpaceX chief Elon Musk gave us an inside look at the engine section of a Super Heavy that's coming together at the company's South Texas site, near the Gulf Coast village of Boca Chica. There is a lot of plumbing involved.
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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Search for Life
The truth is still out there: why the current UFO craze may be a problem of intelligence failings
(DOD/US Navy)
It's safe to say that UFOs, now branded UAPs, are back. In recent years, concerns have grown that supposed physics-defying craft are penetrating US airspace. This could represent a technological breakthrough by foreign competitors or something else entirely. But many people will no doubt have found the recent release of the Pentagon's highly anticipated UAP (unidentified aerial phenomena) report to be underwhelming.
Full Story: Space (7/30) 
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